Science can be defined as an effort to systematically examine the environment and natural phenomena we live in and to predict events that have not yet been observed. In this study, the relationship between STEM education, Science and engineering design process has been mentioned. The examples that the students present are simple telescope design on STEM education, science and engineering design skills. The aim of the simple telescope design activity is for students to design a simple telescope. The activity is suitable for students between the ages of 12 and 14. As a result of this activity, students will learn the stages of the engineering design process, working collaboratively and problem-solving while designing a telescope that they can observe their environment.


The main purpose of science education is to define the problems around the student, make observations, formulate hypotheses, make experiments, draw conclusions, analyze, generalize, and apply the acquired knowledge and skills. Therefore, science is a process that includes creative components.


Purpose of the event:

The aim is to enable students to design a simple telescope. Students will learn how to make a telescope and the working principles of optical telescopes using the Engineering design process.

The goals and result of the event:

  • At the end of the course, students will design a telescope as a concrete product.
  • During the activity, students will learn the engineering design process, collaborative work with friends and problem-solving.
  • Students’ interest in the Science course will increase, as well as their skills such as self-confidence, as they reveal a concrete product.
  • Students will realize that science can be useful not only for the science lesson but also for other different disciplines as well.

Integration into the curriculum:

Learning scenarios Primary school 7th-grade science lesson such as “Explains the structure of the telescope and what it does “Inferences about the importance of the telescope in the development of astronomy.” and “Prepares and the presents a simple telescope model.” Where on the basis of gaining the students.

Activities used in the event:

A selection of pictures from the project practice– The pictures are the author’s own –(Attribution CC-BY)


The teacher divides the students into groups of 4 before starting the activity. Opening the problem scenario from the smartboard, the teacher asks the students to read. The aim here is to enable the student to define the problem.

Problem scenario:

“GALİLEO GALİLEİ (Galile, 1564-1642)

“400 years ago, he observed the sunspots that he dropped on paper with the telescope, which was his invention. In the observations he made at certain time intervals, he noticed that the sunspots moved in the same direction. Thus, he discovered that the Sun rotates around its own axis. He discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter in the observations he made with his telescope, which was his invention. “In the text, you are reading, Galileo developed the telescope that Hans Lippershey, a Dutch optician discovered to observe his surroundings in order to quench his curiosity about space and used it for space. Would you like to make your own telescope like Galileo? “


The teacher asks the questions prepared to the students in order to determine the needs for the problem and to investigate the information needed by the students to solve the problem. “What do we need to know in order to make our telescope?” asks them to answer the question. “How do telescopes work? Do you think there are other types of telescopes? Investigate.” By asking questions, the teacher asks students to write their research and findings from textbooks and electronic.


In this section, the teacher explains to the students the telescope, the types of telescopes and the importance of the telescope for space exploration using online teaching materials such as Education Information Network (EBA) and Morpa Campus. Explain how students will build the telescope.


In the deepening step, the students are asked to explain how to make the telescope they will design to relate science and engineering discipline. The teacher gives pre-prepared drawing papers to be used in the drawing phase of the design. It is ensured that the telescopes to be designed are drawn on the drawing paper in detail with the materials to be used. Students who complete their drawings start to design the product. Students who make the product are asked to test the product they designed. Design products that do not work are requested to be redesigned and revised.

A selection of pictures from the project practice– The pictures are the author’s own –(Attribution CC-BY)


In this section, the design products produced by the students during and at the end of the activity were measured. One of the students prepared by the teacher “Write in the blank what you learned while designing your product.” and “Time to evaluate ourselves, answer the following questions.

• You have learned that there are many types of telescopes. What are the names of these telescope types?

• What is the difference between a mirror telescope and a lens telescope?

• How did the invention of the telescope contribute to space exploration? “questions are asked to be answered in writing.

After completing this section, students will present their design products to the class. They will present to the class how they followed the course of the activity and the difficulties. During the students’ presentation, the teacher and other students in the class will evaluate the group that presents with the rubric.


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