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i am a science and technology teacher. i am interested in, look for STEM projects to develop myself.




While examining some substances in our environment, we examine them in two groups as acids and bases. Substances that donate H+ ions in aqueous solutions are called acids. The flavours of the acids are generally sour and acids are caustic. For example:

HCl: Hydrochloric Acid-spirit of salt,                     H2SO4: Sulfuric Acid-Olive oil- ,

HNO3: Nitric Acid- vitriol,                                        CH3COOH: Acetic Acid-radical vinegar,

CO2: Carbon dioxide,                                            SO2: Sulphur dioxide.

Acids are also involved in the structure of food and beverages in daily life. Vinegar contains Acetic Acid, Yogurt: Lactic Acid, Lemon: Citric Acid…Substances that donate (OH)–  ions in their aqueous solution are called bases. Usually, bases have hydroxide (OH)  ions in their structure. The bases are usually hot in taste. It gives a slippery feeling to the hand. NaOH: Sodium Hydroxide -Sud Caustic, Ca (OH)2: Calcium Hydroxide-Slaked Lime, KOH: Potassium Hydroxide-Potash Caustic, NH3: Ammonia. There are also bases in the structure of food and beverages in daily life. These include chocolate, mayonnaise, baking powder, baking soda… Bases are generally used in the construction of cleaning materials. For example; laundry detergent, dishwashing liquid, bleach…When detecting acids and bases, it is dangerous to look at their taste, smell them, touch them. Because there are very dangerous acids and bases. That’s why we use reagents to detect them. Some of these separators are:

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