About ekutlu

I graduated from Van Yüzüncü Yıl University with a master's degree in science education. Turkey's province of Antalya Korkuteli district Cumhuriyet Gülhizar Osman Sarıca İmamhatip Secondary School science teacher. I'm a stem trainer.



Animal use in science refers to animals used in basic and applied research, i.e., products used in drug development or manufacture, and chemicals, food additives, and other testing to ensure they are safe. The three Rs stand for modification, reduction, and improvement of animal use in science. Anyone who uses animals for scientific purposes in the European Union must practice the Three Rs. Under EU law (Directive 2010/63/EU). Animal testing on cosmetic products is prohibited under EU legislation. This Learning Scenario (LS) will enable middle school students to learn about animal studies, Three Rs careers and animal care. It will also touch on the Three R principles and their importance in governing the use of animals in science. Secondary school students will design a playground for experimental animals in order to improve the environments in which animals live during the use of animals in science.

SubjectScience Scientific thinking İnformation technologies  
TopicAnimal research, alternatives, Three Rs principles Integrated IT and Science course for middle school students  
Age of students12-14 years old
Preparation time3 hours
Teaching time160 minutes
Online teaching materialVideo to watch to draw attention to the topic and discuss it with students: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPNNNXOrkqM&ab_channel=tahabat%C4%B1kanvar Video to be used to introduce 3R in the description step: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LdKiD5pW2XY&t=201s&ab_channel=NationalCentreforthe3Rs Web 2.0 tool that students will use for playground design: https://www.tinkercad.com/  
Offline teaching materialPaper for students’ drawings Paper for students to write instructions/take notes/ Pencils for students  
Resources usedAnimals used for scientific purposes: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/3r/alternative_en.htm Video to watch to draw attention to the topic and discuss it with students: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPNNNXOrkqM&ab_channel=tahabat%C4%B1kanvar Video to be used to introduce 3R in the description step: https://www-youtube-com.translate.goog/watch?v=LdKiD5pW2XY&t=201s&_x_tr_sl=en&_x_tr_tl=tr&_x_tr_hl=tr&_x_tr_pto=nui Web 2.0 tool that students will use for playground design: https://www.tinkercad.com/  

Aim Of The lesson

Exploring the Three Rs principle embedded in European Union legislation,

To learn about the career profiles of practitioners who apply the Three Rs in their work,

To gain knowledge in the field of animal use in science,

Studying how to study STEM subjects.


  • Project-Based Learning: students get fact-based tasks, problems to solve and they work in groups. This kind of learning usually transcends traditional subjects.
  • Lifelong Learning: learning does not stop when leaving school.
  • Collaborative Learning: a strong focus on group work.
  • STEM Learning: Increased focus on Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics subjects in the curriculum
  • Student Centered Learning: students and their needs are at the centre of the learning process.
  • Assessment: the focus of assessments is shifting from “what you know” to “what you can do.”
  • Peer Learning: students learn from peers and give each other feedback.

21st Century Skills

  • Critical thinking
  • Communication
  • Cooperation
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Problem solving
  • Digital literacy


The teacher shows the students the video in the link.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPNNNXOrkqM&ab_channel=tahabat%C4%B1kanvar Ask the students, “Why do you think animals are used in experiments? What do you think about experiments on animals? Have you heard of The Three Rs? “asks questions and encourages students to express their opinions.


The teacher, who takes the students’ opinions on the subject, asks the students to bring the use of animals in science and The Three Rs researches and findings to the class.


After completing their research, students present their data on The Three Rs and the use of animals in science to their classmates in teams. The teacher listens to the students’ presentation and fills in the missing parts. The teacher shows the students the video about The Three Rs.


What are the “Three Rs”?

The publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”  by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in 1959 marks the birth of the principle of the “Three Rs”.

The authors proposed the principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement (the “Three Rs”) as the key strategies of a systematic framework aimed at achieving the goal of humane experimental techniques. Russell and Burch saw replacement as the ultimate goal for laboratory animal based research, education and testing, with the other two, reduction and refinement, being more readily achievable in the short term.


It can be defined as methods, strategies or approaches that do not involve the use of live animals. Replacement may be achieved through a number of tools or their combinations including in vitro systems using tissues, whole cells or parts of cells systems based on biochemical approaches, i.e. using synthetic (macro)molecules as proxies of (reactive) toxicity targets. Such methods are referred to as “in chemico” computer-based models and approaches – often termed in silico use of ‘omics’ technologies (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics) non-testing approaches such as ‘read-across’ technique


The concept of reduction covers any approach that will result in fewer animals being used to achieve the same objective, including maximising the information abtained per animal, reducing the number of animals used in the original procedure and/or limiting or avoiding the subsequent use of additional animals. The number of animals can also be reduced by performing procedures on animals more than once, where this does not detract from the scientific objective or result in poor animal welfare. However, the benefit of reusing animals should always be balanced against any adverse effects on their welfare, taking into account the lifetime experience of the individual animal. As a result of this potential conflict, the reuse of animals should be considered on a case-by-case basis.


Today, the term refinement signifies the modification of any procedures or husbandry and care practices from the time the experimental animal is born until its death, so as to minimise the pain, suffering and distress experienced by the animal and enhance its well-being.

When an animal experiences pain, suffering or distress, there are often accompanying physiological changes which may increase the variability of scientific results. Refinement therefore is also likely to improve data quality and contribute to Reduction. Refinement can also be achieved by moving from species that are considered more sentient to those less sentient. Examples: substituting the use of an adult fish with earlier life stages, for example, before entering under the scope of the Directive, or substituting the use of fish with daphnia. These are both considered methods of refinement as they are likely to reduce the pain, suffering and distress experienced by the animal, however, still requiring the use of live animals.


The teacher asks the students to design a playground for the laboratory animals to improve their environment. He asks them to draw their designs on a piece of paper and then create their designs in three dimensions using the tinkercad program. The aim here is to ensure the integration of science, engineering and technology. Students use their engineering skills while drawing the prototype they will design on a piece of paper. They actively use technology while designing playgrounds through the Tinkercad program.


Students who complete their designs present their designs to their classmates. During the presentation, each group is evaluated by peer assessment with the rubrics prepared by the teacher.


Peer assessment will be done with rubric.The rubric is given below.

QuantitiesBad (1)Good (2)excellent (3)
 Creating products   
Accurate measurement of the created product   
Availability of the product     
Promoting the product and sharing the process   

Student Feedback

This learning scenario has not yet been implemented. At the end of the application, students’ feedback can be made on the padlet.

Teacher’s Remarks

It is thought that this learning scenario will raise students’ awareness about the use of animals in science and The Three Rs by using STEM disciplines.



This project aims to raise awareness of our students about today’s environmental problems with the Steam approach, to increase environmental and recycling awareness in our children who will be adults of the future, to use our natural resources effectively, to avoid waste, to transform waste into art and to ensure that they produce rather than consume, to provide motivation by using technology and Web 2.0 tools and to teach our lessons. to integrate, to increase cooperation and self-confidence among students, to contribute to their foreign language skills. Our project was realized with the participation of 11 schools. Our project appeals to the 12-15 age group.

Participants in the project:

Project partners Ayşegül Kaşka- Nefise Yılmaz İpek Secondary School- İbradı, Cristina Marin- Colegio Cooperativa Al- Bayyana- Spain, Deniz Soydan – Yusuf Ziya Öner Science High School – Döşemealtı, Elisavate Stefanoska- Hristo Uzunov- North Macadonia, Emine Kutlu – Cumhuriyet Gülizar Osman Sarıca Secondary School Korkuteli, Figen Boyacıgil- Çalkaya 75 years Cumhuriyet Secondary School- Aksu, Magdalena Korzynska- Poland, Müyesser Esravaş- Çalkaya 75 Years Cumhuriyet Secondary School-Aksu, Necla Sever-Kargicak Secondary School- Alanya, Olcay Çakır- Private Life Design Schools- Alanya and Raşide It consists of Dayıoğlu – Antalya Science and Art Center – Kepez.

Teaching Resources (Material & Online tools)


Waste materials




Online Tools:







Learning Objectives

– To make students aware of environmental problems and to enable them to reach possible solutions

– To raise awareness of recycling in students

– Questioning recycling in terms of effective use of resources

– Taking care of waste control in the immediate vicinity

– Gaining the ability to find, understand, analyze, produce and share information

– To enable them to use technology effectively and efficiently

– Creating awareness of safe internet usage

– Supporting them to communicate effectively by developing cooperation, self-control, self-efficacy and self-confidence.


Recycling Wordclouds

In our project, which aims to raise environmental awareness among students, word clouds were created to reveal the readiness levels of students regarding recycling. Students used the WordArt Web 2.0 tool to create their word clouds.

Our WordArt word cloud works

Recycle for a Better Future Book

After revealing the readiness levels of the students, we wrote a joint story using the StoryJumper Web2 tool as a collaborative product work. We used the station technique while writing our joint story. Each group continued the story on the assigned page.

Our story



We Recycle Letters for a Better Future

At this stage of our project, we organized recycling activities with our students. We wrote the initials of the name of our project using waste materials. The teams chose letters from the name of our project and created them using waste materials. We combined the created letters into a collage.

We Recycle Letters for a Better Future Collage


In the explanation phase, recycling and environmental awareness, which are the main discipline goals of our project, are explained.


Recycling is the conversion of wastes that can be re-evaluated into raw materials through various processes and included in the production process again. Reuse, on the other hand, is the use of wastes in the same way until the end of their economic life, without undergoing any treatment other than collection and cleaning.

Importance of Recycling

  • It ensures the protection of natural resources.
  • It saves energy.
  • It provides convenience in garbage operations by reducing the amount of waste.
  • Thanks to the resource and energy savings it provides, it contributes to the development and economy of the country.


It is the stage where our project integrates with other disciplines.
Art integration: From Waste To Art
Technology integration: Safer Internet Day- Digital Games
English integration: Acrostic Poem

From Waste To Art

In the “From Waste to Art” activity, our students tried to create art products such as sculptures and paintings using waste products. In the event where science, engineering and art integration was ensured, our students were given a problem situation. The teams produced suitable solutions for this problem situation. Student teams chose the most suitable solution. Our students drew the prototype of the chosen solution on drawing papers in 2D. Then our students started to create the prototype. The products created by our students were presented as a virtual exhibition using the Artsteps Web 2.0 tool.


Safer Internet Day

For February 8, Safe Internet Day, we created classes using the Pixton Web 2.0 tool and drew attention to safe internet rules.

Acrostic Poem

In the acrostic poetry activity, our students wrote texts consisting of the initials of our project and created a common poem. Here, by completing a text with our students, we used the station technique and integrated English with science.

Digital Games

In digital game development, which is the last activity of our project, technology and science were integrated. For this activity, we created the games of our project from Web 2.0 tools such as LearningApps, Kahoot, Wordwall, Quizizz.


At the end of our project, post-test scales were applied to our students for evaluation. In addition, our students’ opinions about the project were collected through Padlet.



Science can be defined as an effort to systematically examine the environment and natural phenomena we live in and to predict events that have not yet been observed. In this study, the relationship between STEM education, Science and engineering design process has been mentioned. The examples that the students present are simple telescope design on STEM education, science and engineering design skills. The aim of the simple telescope design activity is for students to design a simple telescope. The activity is suitable for students between the ages of 12 and 14. As a result of this activity, students will learn the stages of the engineering design process, working collaboratively and problem-solving while designing a telescope that they can observe their environment.


The main purpose of science education is to define the problems around the student, make observations, formulate hypotheses, make experiments, draw conclusions, analyze, generalize, and apply the acquired knowledge and skills. Therefore, science is a process that includes creative components.

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This learning scenario focuses on the economic use of resources and the student’s commitment to the growth and development process of an organism. In the process, students are expected to raise awareness about water conservation and to follow the growth and development process of a plant. Students are asked to create a design product that will enable them to measure the moisture in the soil of the plant by coding with the help of the mBlock – coding robot. Students will use the knowledge gained from science, information technology and mathematics lessons while creating the design product. The aim here is to make students realize that different disciplines can be integrated and used in daily life. With the learning scenario, while examining the growth and development process of a plant. It is aimed to contribute to the efficient use of water, which is one of the important resources in our world, by coding.


Throughout our life, we obtain almost all of our needs directly or indirectly from nature. Considering this interaction with nature, we need to draw attention to the sustainability of the environment and the use of natural resources. Unfortunately, in our consumption habits that we have acquired to meet our needs, we often do not remember the environmental dimension, but we ignore it by thinking anthropocentrically. In order to be able to think a little more ecocentrically (environmentally centered), in order to eliminate this deficiency, it is of great importance that we are knowledgeable about environmental protection, and we reflect the awareness of water and water conservation, which is one of our natural resources, to our behaviours.

The pictures are the author’s own –(Attribution CC-BY)
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