# A lesson in central symmetry

In “Panayot Volov ” school in the city of Kaspichan, two math classes were organized and dedicated to learning symmetry (central symmetry in particular) with the usage of a video game.

The organizers of the event were Yavor Yakimov – the principal of the school, and Mladen Valkov (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences).The lecturer was Mladen Valkov and there were two assistant teachers – the deputy principal of the school Darina Draganova and Zhivka Gabrovska – math teacher.

Sixteen students from 5th grade took part in the classes. Each level (task) in the video game uses a rectangular board divided in unit cells. One half of the table has its cells colored in black or white and is unclickable. The other half is completely white and some of its cells have to be clicked in such a manner that every two cells that are symmetrical in respect to the red dot in the center of the table, are in the same color. The game is divided in 4 different sections, two of which have the table stationary, and the other two have the table constantly rotating. The game was created by Prof. Toni Chehlarova and Mladen Valkov, developed on the unity game engine platform:

The first part of the lesson was dedicated to preparation and installing the game.

1. Every student had to find the address of the game by themselves with verbal instructions. After that, they had to click the link and download the game which was done successfully by each student.
2. In the next step, they had to unzip the archive on the desktop. This was also done  successfully by each student with verbal instructions
3. Every student had to write the IP address of the server which was going to collect their results. There was a small discussion on what is an IP address.

The second part of the lesson was the actual playing of the game. The plan was to go through the first and the third sections of the game – central symmetry on a board without constant rotation.

At first, the students had difficulty solving even the first levels which involved a 4×4 table. Most of them were coloring the cells, so that the table has an axis of symmetry (not a center of symmetry). The initial explanation on what is central symmetry and how to find a symmetrical cell was – “From a given cell’s center we go to the center of the table, we take the distance that we’ve passed and we pass it again in the same direction. The cell we get to is the symmetrical one of the starting cell.” Some of the students were successfully finding the symmetrical cells one by one, but they were out of time – each level has a 30 seconds time limit.

After this first try, another strategy was introduced – we take each column, we find its symmetrical column and we reverse the first one onto the second:

After that, some of the students were doing the first levels quite fast. After that they had the idea, they started solving the levels without the strategies. Some of the students started doing levels successfully from the second section – table with constant rotation, which is quite a challenge for bigger tables.

The first 15 minutes of the second lessons were dedicated to revisiting the sections from the previous lesson. Some of the students were solving more than 15 levels of the maximum sixteen available. This means that the acquired sense of central symmetry was maintained through the pause of 1 day.

The game contains different combinatorial applets some of which are symmetry on a table, tile coverings, graphs and knot theory. Each applet has an exploration part, educational part and a competitive part. Students were introduced to the exploration and competitive part of the Table Symmetry Applet.

After they downloaded the updater with the help of the teachers, they successfully installed and started the game.

Each student had to create an account and password. The default restrictions  – the username should contain only symbols and digits, the passwords should match and contain at least 6 symbols, and others – were challenging for some of the students.

Every student could investigate boards with different sizes and choose between axial and central symmetry. On the competitive part, some of the students passed both Beginner and Advanced sections (first two of the 4 available).

At the end of the lesson, students were invited to the “Shkola” (https://en.dipkusz-forum.net/article/385/synchronous-remote-learning-with-the-educational-game-strunima) of the game, which is the multiplayer part of the game. Each room can hold up to 14 students, so the students were divided into two groups and joined two different rooms. Since the time was limited, we only tested one level with axial symmetry, which most students solved successfully.

# Humans and animals: Ungodly Friends?

The activities took place between 11 February and 15 of April, 2022.
Organizer: Korakaki Eleni
High school students

# Introduction:

These STEM activities were created for a secondary school with the objective to introduce the principles of the 3Rs – the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal use in science. Students developed their critical thinking and science literacy skills by exploring topics such as ethics in science and how the European Union is protecting the welfare of laboratory animals. The learning activities were created in a  Course Management System (Open eClass), which is used in education and supports the electronic classroom service (e-Classroom) in all schools in Greece.

## Short description

11/02/2022 The scenario started with a real -life question the purpose of which was to motivate students (flipped classroom). Also they had to carry out research with safe internet engines and answer some questions.

25/02/2022 In this lesson the students had been provided with some videos which presented the principles of 3Rs. A discussion followed and an online questionnaire was completed-the purpose of which was the self assessment of the students regarding the material presented. As homework the students had to carry out research with safe internet engines and answer some questions.

11/03/2022 The students read and commentated fragments of philosophical texts in relation to human attitude towards animals from the Middle Ages to contemporary era.  Furthermore, the students wrote down their own thoughts and arguments about these issues and uploaded their texts in the eclass lesson (Open eClass).

1/04/2022 In the third lesson the students carried out bibliographic research using prescribed bibliography. They studied the principles of 3Rs and prepared presentations in pairs. Subsequently, a role play activity took place where one group presented and the other two were the assessors. Moreover the teachers formally assess the presentations with a rubric.

Additionally, as homework they completed an online questionnaire and formulated a series of questions to be submitted to the researcher during the online meeting.

15/4/2022 In the last lesson they had an online meeting with a research specialist in the field of animal experimentation and as a result they gathered more information about benefits derived from the animals used in science, the species used for experiments and the living conditions of these animals in Greece.

# 2. Objectives:

• to educate students about the principles of 3Rs
• to cultivate critical thought and scientific point of view
• to develop awareness and sensitivity in students about all life forms
• to help students perform proper bibliographic research
• communication-becoming acquainted with research specialists in the field of animal experimentation.
• to monitor the development of moral thinking concerning human attitude towards animals from the Middle Ages to contemporary era.

# Learning -presentation of new materials and activities

## a. 1st asynchronous distance learning (duration 10 min): Motivating students-

Flipped Classroom

eclass.sch.gr (Open eClass)

Given safe internet engines for bibliographic research:

Firstlly the students watched a Ted-Ed educational video about how experiments on dogs led to the discovery of insulin.

Secondly they answered the question: “Experiments on dogs led to the discovery of insulin. Do you believe that experiments on animals are necessary for scientific goals?”

Homework:

Also they had to carry out research with safe internet engines and answer the following questions.

• Why are animals used in science and medicine?
• What is the historical basis for the use of animals in science?
• What are the animal welfare aspects?
• Can we do science without animal testing?

## σι. 2η Σύγχρονη εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση (διάρκεια 45 λεπτά): Έναρξη μαθήματος

First of all, the answers to the questions of the previous lesson were discussed.

After that, the students watched two videos which presented the principles of 3Rs.

A discussion followed and an online questionnaire (I) was completed-the purpose of which was the self assessment of the students regarding the material presented.

(questionnaire I- self assessment )

Homework: An online questionnaire (II)

## c. 3rd synchronous face to face learning (duration 45 min):

The students read and commentated fragments of philosophical texts in relation to human attitude towards animals from the Middle Ages to contemporary era. So, through the texts of Acquinas, the students were confronted with arguments for the exploitation of animals by any means, while through the texts of Mill and Singer, the students found arguments for the obligations that human beings have concerning animal life or arguments even about the very concept of animal rights. Furthermore, the students wrote down their own thoughts and arguments about these issues and uploaded their texts in the eclass lesson (Open eClass).

## d. 4th synchronous face to face learning (duration 45 min): Lesson on Three Rs

Prescribed bibliography:

Firstly, the students carried out bibliographic research using prescribed bibliography. They studied the principles of 3Rs and prepared presentations in pairs.

Secondly, a role play activity took place where one group presented and the other two were the assessors. Moreover the teachers formally assess the presentations with a rubric.

(Students and teacher evaluated the presentations)

Homework: Creation of a questionnaire

Based on the collected information, students formulated a series of questions which have been submitted to the researcher during the online meeting.

## e. 5th synchronous face to face learning (duration 45 min): Meeting with an expert

An online meeting was held with a specialist scientist (the head of the animal management committee at the Biology Department of the University of Crete). The students had a discussion with the scientist as a result they gathered more information about benefits derived from the animals used in science, the species used for experiments and the living conditions of these animals in Greece .

After the completion of the lesson plan the students completed a survey in order to give feedback to their teachers about the content and the activities. Moreover the teachers completed a self assessment.

# Questions and practice

Questions:

• Experiments on dogs led to the discovery of insulin. Do you believe that experiments on animals are necessary for scientific goals?”
• Why are animals used in science and medicine?
• What is the historical basis for the use of animals in science?
• What are the animal welfare aspects?
• Can we do science without animal testing?
• How can we accommodate current concerns about animal life and rights with the undoubtful fact of exploitation of animals in the food industry?

Practice:

The learning activities were created in a Course Management System (Open eClass), which is used in education and supports the electronic classroom service (e-Classroom) in all schools in Greece.

We tried to create a STEAM scenario with the combination of three subjects Biology, Chemistry and Philosophy, in order for our students to achieve 21st century skills.

The scenario was based in Students centered learning.

We used the Flipped classroom method and the Peer learning, students learn from peers and give other feedback participating in a role play activity.

# Conclusions

With this learning scenario we wanted to introduce the students to the 3Rs principle,  to cultivate their critical thought and scientific point of view, to develop awareness and sensitivity about all life forms, to inform them about the existing and prospective STEM careers and to help them perform proper bibliographic research.

This LS helped students to understand why animals are used in science and what the ethical, societal and scientific challenges are. In addition, it raised their awareness of new scientific laboratory techniques without the use of living animals according to the Three R´s principles. This lesson made them think about topics and issues they had never considered in the past and on the importance of science.

# Evaluation

The students were asked to complete a survey after the implementation of the learning scenario, in order to give feedback about the content and the activities. They considered that the topic was very interesting. They enjoyed working in groups, reviewing the materials and collaborating. Also they emphasized on how this lesson made them think about topics and issues they had never considered in the past and on the importance of science.

In addition, the teachers evaluated this scenario and they found it very interesting. However they would like to repeat it, in collaboration with teachers from STEM and non-STEM subjects in order to enrich the activities with topics such as culture, customs, religious traditions etc.

# Corrections

From the evaluations it was obvious that the teachers needed more time to carry out STEM activities. Moreover, students made a lot of mistakes in questionnaire II, which was based on bibliographic research with safe internet engines. To improve their school performance it was given to them prescribed bibliography for the next activities.

# Evolution from STEM to STE(A)M education

STEM education was introduced in 2001 and was originally called “Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology”. It was an initiative created by the scientific administrators of the National Science Foundation of the USA. However, American biologist Judith Ramaley, then assistant director of education and human resources at the NSF (U.S. National Science Foundation), rearranged the word order and formed the acronym STEM.

STEM Education Initiative was created as a concept and set of educational methods that aim to provide all students with critical thinking skills and make them creative in solving problems, innovative and sought-after workforce in the labor market. STEM removes traditional barriers between these four disciplines, integrating four subjects into one cohesion curriculum (White, 2014).

STEM is an interdisciplinary approach to learning where rigorous academic concepts are linked to real-world lessons. Students apply science, technology, engineering and mathematics in contexts that create a link between school, community, business and global enterprise, enabling the development of STEM literacy, and thus the ability to compete in the modern economy.

The goals of the STE (A) M movement are to transform education and to encourage the integration of art and design into the school curriculum. Art is more broadly defined by providing different functionalities and interdisciplinary connections between the four initial pillars of STEM. Thus, it can represent the language and philological sciences used to communicate and share new knowledge, physical activity – sports, dance and physical expression, fine arts, which contribute to understanding the cultural differences of past and present, music, through knowledge of rhythm and harmony are also directly related to mathematics, as well as history, psychology, philosophy, aesthetics, ergonomics and finally, reading through human activities that can be part of science, aesthetic creation or physical expression.

# Designing smart, green, meet the experts

Event: Sustainable energy in the future – designing smart, green city models

Dates that it took place: 5-8 April 2022
Author: Maria Zambrotta

Description

Within the period of the STEM discovery week the structures of the Politecnico of Turin received an unusual visit: students and teachers from Lithuania, Greece, Cyprus and Portugal were welcomed at the Poli, together with their young colleagues from the Istituto Superiore Santorre di Santarosa in Turin, to discover the educational offer and the laboratories.
This was made possible by the Erasmus+ project “(S)TEAM today, make changes for tomorrow” on the theme of renewable energy for the cities of the future. On April 5th and 6th, a group of about 50 people – 40 students and 10 teachers – met researchers from the University and got to know two facilities of excellence such as Envipark and the Energy Center. At Envipark it was possible to have a guided tour of the park and of the laboratories of the Politecnico and the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia dedicated to CO2 reuse, renewable energies, biocatalysis and fuel cells. The following day, the Energy Center offered the opportunity to discover the energy research of the Politecnico and the Edison Group, allowing young people to understand how a battery works, how to build a battery, how to model and visualize through the “Decision theatre” scenarios related to problems in the supply of energy, oil and gas.

The didactic paths built on the direct experience in the laboratory were engaging and effective and the interaction with the researchers was passionate about the group of young people, linking the academic field and current issues of research to the everyday reality. In this way the University opens up and involves future students also in the international arena, pushing them to consider the profession of scientist. The enthusiasm of the group can be summed up in the words of a Portuguese student to the researchers: “Today I understood the job I want to do. Maybe one day we will meet as colleagues.”

# UNDERSTANDING AND ACTING FOR A HEALTHY PLASTIC FREE SEA

As a contribution to the SCIENTIX STEM DISCOVERY CAMPAIGN 2022 Liceo Linguistico “Ilaria Alpi” hosted the live event: “UNDERSTANDING AND ACTING FOR A HEALTHY PLASTIC FREE SEA” on April 12th 2022, at 11.00 from the school’s Multimedia classroom.

Link to the video recording of the event: https://youtu.be/mGZfoBqvOLQ

Liceo Alpi students from Class 4D were joined by the eTwinning partners from schools:

● Alytus Jotvingiai gymnasium, Lithuania https://jotvingiugimnazija.lt/

● Gymnasio of Anthousa, Greece https://blogs.sch.gr/gymanthous

The event focused on examining and understanding the paths of plastic pollution, the impact on marine ecosystems, and new technologies for observation and removal. Students also referred to different sectors of the blue economy, in a circular economy perspective and spreaded a message of active citizenship.

After watching the docufilm “a plastic ocean”, our aim was to spread creatively the message containing what we learned about ocean’s plastic pollution. Students developed the following 6 sections:

## OUR PLASTIC WASTE COMES BACK TO US

The usage of plastic affects us and our health.

The way we pollute the sea with plastic that we use inevitably returns to us.

The fish and the various molluscs that we eat for example contain microplastics, that are plastic fragments around 5 millimeters .

Consuming this type of food regularly is very much dangerous for our health.

So, when plastic ends up in the sea and pollutes it, unavoidably it starts being part of the marine animal food chain.

As a consequence, by eating fish, microplastic goes into our organism.

A group of researchers of the Vienna University analyzed the fecal material belonging to eight people from different countries.

The fecal material was tested for 11 types of microplastic and the researchers found out that there were 9 types out of 11 in all the participants.

The predominant ones were PP and PET, mostly used to produce plastic bottles and caps.

Moreover, the participants wrote down what they were eating and it turned out that the majority of them used to consume fish.

But how much plastic do we eat in a year? And how much in our whole life?

A study proved that in a year we ingest around 250 grams of plastic. This means that in our entire life we consume about 20 kilograms.

Nevertheless we don’t have to assume that all the plastic that ends up in our organism comes from food, it also comes from the polluted air.

Plastic is polluting the air we breath, the food we eat and water we drink.

It’s obvious that the water contained in plastic bottles has more microplastics than the water coming from the taps.

On average a person assumes 90 000 microplastic particles by drinking from watering bottles and from 39 000 to 52 000 particles by eating seafood, whose consumption, despite this, continues to increase.

To produce plastics some dangerous chemicals are used such as bisphenol A and BPA, which can strain into the aliments in plastic containers. That could be even more dangerous when the food is heated in them.

This has serious effects on people’s health, in fact it could alter the DNA and the function of hormones, which lead to tumors.

It also causes infertility and obesity.

Plastics really are a serious problem that affects not only the general health of the planet we live in, but also our own.

## MARINE ANIMALS WITH PLASTIC-FILLED STOMACHS

Over the past ten years, plastic pollution has become a dangerous constant in our lives, and today it represents a threat not only to mankind, but also to the entire marine ecosystem.

In 2015, a group of Dutch researchers discovered that the number of sea animals that ingest plastic and microplastic had doubled since 1997, and his number is now above 2000.

Many experiments have been conducted and it has become clear that animals eat plastic because for them it looks, smells and also feels like food since they rely mainly on their sense of smell. This clearly leads them to suffer, because once the plastic is inside their bodies, it fills their stomachs, blocks the gastrointestinal tract, reduces the feeling of hunger and, as a consequence, they eat less, feel weaker and die of starvation or in the worst-case scenario, they suffocate. Besides the ingestion, we know that plastic can be menacing as well when marine mammals- which play key roles in influencing the structure and function of the sea environment – such as dolphins, whales or seals, get tangled up in plastic nets or bags and get injuries that can cause them reduced mobility or deadly infections. In addition, a 2018 study discovered that some of those animals who eat plastic are the same who actually take part in the microplastic’s diffusion. Krill, for example, breaks microplastics down into even smaller nanoplastics that are so tiny they can even get inside cells. In fact, they are far worse than macroplastics because they can damage proteins and other major biomolecules.

To make matters worse, the microplastic contamination is noxious not only for biota’s health but also for humans’ health. Most of the marine litter in the ocean is poisonous. The main reason why is that big pieces of plastic waste free floating in the ocean, such as plastic beverage bottles or food wrappers, undergo leaching. They get weathered and degrade, dividing into smaller pieces, becoming microplastic and, at the same time, releasing carcinogenic chemicals. Secondly, the debris absorbs the organic pollutants waterborne from industry and agriculture, accumulating POPs and becoming toxic poison pills extremely deleterious for marine habitats and ecosystems, as well as the well-being of people. The problem lies in microplastic ingestion. When aquatic animals shallow these harmful particles, the toxins stuck on them transition into their tissues and organs, migrating mainly into the muscles and the fats, the parts we commonly consume. This means we both ingest microscopic pieces of plastic and toxic substances while eating seafood. In fact, plastic debris doesn’t only harm the ocean’s wildlife — it’s adversely affecting the human food chain, too.

This is why we must take the toxicity of marine plastic pollution as an extremely serious issue and prevent the plastic waste from increasing and spreading widely.

## MICROPLASTICS

Microplastics are small bits of plastic, 5 millimeters or less.

Researchers have found microplastics in marine and terrestrial life. They cause pollution by entering natural ecosystems from a variety of sources, including cosmetics, clothing, food packaging, fishing activities and industrial processes.

Please, be aware of the fact that there are two different classifications of microplastics:

Primary microplastics are directly released into the environment as small plastic particles. These are intentionally engineered particles, like those found in some consumer and industrial products and cosmetics.

Secondary microplastics are the result of the degradation of large plastic waste, like plastic bags and bottles, into smaller plastic fragments when exposed to our environment. An example of secondary microplastics present on the ocean come from clothing, due to the erosion of polyester, acrylic, or nylon-based clothing, often during the washing process. This process of breaking down large plastic material into much smaller pieces is known as fragmentation.

But do you know that microplastics also enter the human body? Plastics degrade slowly (often over hundreds to thousands of years), and because of that microplastics have a high probability of ingestion and accumulation in the bodies and tissues of many organisms. Yet researchers are unsure about the volume of microplastics a body can tolerate or the damage it may cause. Scientists have shown that these substances can weaken immune function and hinder growth and reproduction. By eating the animals present on the human food chain, we unconsciously absorb the microplastics present on those animals.

When products with microplastics are used, the microplastics go through the water filtration system and into the ocean, but because of their small size they are likely to escape capture by the preliminary treatment screens on wastewater plants. These beads are harmful to the organisms in the ocean, especially filter feeders, because they can easily ingest the plastic and become sick. Various annelid species have microplastics in their gastrointestinal tracts and also crustaceans integrate microplastics into both their respiratory and digestive tracts. Plastic particles are dangerous because they are often mistaken by fish for food.

Small animals are at risk of reduced food intake due to false satiation and resulting starvation.

In summer 2021, it was reported that a fish had broken a world record — it contained 915 synthetic particles, the most ever recorded.

Not only fish and free-living organisms can ingest microplastics. Even scleractinian corals, which are primary reef-builders, ingest microplastics. Microplastics stick to the exterior of the corals. The adherence to the outside of corals can be harmful, because corals cannot handle sediment on their exterior. They have to secrete mucus, expending energy in the process, increasing the likelihood of mortality.

The harmful effects of microplastic ingestion is an issue of concern especially in case of seabirds. The toxic effect of plastic fragments has negative effects on their body which could cause alteration in the feeding behavior, reproduction and mortality.

In conclusion, microplastics are such a concern because it is difficult to clean them up due to their size.

## EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO THE GLOBAL PLASTIC POLLUTION PROBLEM

How have the society, industries and governments all around the world responded to the global plastic pollution problem? This is a problem that impacts everybody and that should matter to all of us.

The main problem related to plastic is single-use plastic, which is also what many countries are focusing on to try to get rid of it.

The term “single-use” means “made to be used once only” and refers to “items whose unchecked proliferation are blamed for damaging the environment and affecting the food chain,” according to the dictionary.

This means that we use this kind of plastic once only, and then we just throw it away causing it damage our environment. For example, cutlery (knives, forks); plates, straws, containers, plastic used for packaging.

To show you how government reacted to this problem around the world, we are going to illustrate 2 examples of 2 different countries.

The first one is China. In China the government set a goal for 2025, which is to control plastic pollution, substantially reduce the amount of plastic waste in landfills in major cities, create a plastics management system and advance research into alternative products.

The plan will be implemented gradually. It will start in large cities and then expand to smaller towns. Non-biodegradable plastic bags will be banned in shopping centres, supermarkets and home catering by the end of 2020 in the largest cities. China will support the use of alternative materials, such as cloth, paper or biodegradable bags. And it will encourage the recycling and disposal of plastic waste.

In Peru, a decree has been issued whose goal is to replace single-use plastics with “reusable, biodegradable plastic or other materials whose degradation does not generate contamination by micro-plastics or dangerous substances.” Peru’s Congress has also passed a law to phase out single-use plastic bags across the country over the next three years. According to Peru’s Environment Ministry, the country uses 947,000 tons of plastic each year, while 75 percent is thrown out and only 0.3 percent is recycled.

Let’s have look at the regulations which have been adopted here in Europe and that directly affect us.

•          The EU is taking steps to reduce plastic pollution by setting strict new regulations on single-use plastic products, reducing the quantity of waste plastic released into the environment, especially on beaches.

•          The Council agrees with the Commission’s proposal to design single-use beverage containers in such a way that their caps and lids remain attached to the bottle.

•          Until 2023, paper plates with plastic coating are included in the list of products whose consumption will be reduced.

•          All-plastic plates will be banned.

•          the EU also want to improve water quality by reducing plastic waste in the sea and microplastics released into the environment (which is a goal for 2030)

Moreover, we found out that many industries and companies made initiatives in order to fight this problem:

•          Two hundred and fifty organizations responsible for 20 percent of the plastic packaging produced around the world have committed to reducing waste and pollution. The initiative is called the New Plastics Economy Global Commitment, and it includes a diverse group of members including the city of Austin, clothing company H&M, Unilever, PespsiCo, L’Oreal, Nestle, and Coca-Cola.

•          Branded as “No Straw November,” the campaign is a push to eliminate single-use plastic. They’re pushing 500 businesses to commit to only serving plastic straws upon request. The No Straw November campaign is also lobbying cities and regional governments to pass ordinances that encourage businesses to use fewer straws. Individuals are also being asked to sign an online pledge to limit their own personal consumption of single-use plastic.

•          The airline has lounges in the U.S. and around the world. A representative from the company says the lounges won’t serve drinks with straws, and plastic won’t be used for flatware. Plastic water bottles will no longer be served, and reusable bags will be given to customers taking food to-go.

To sum up, we saw that there have been many initiatives made by industries and governments in order to reduce or eliminate plastic pollution, but we all have to be aware that this problem impacts us individually, too. So we all have to fight it and do our best to save our planet.

## PLASTIC WASTE – AN UNFAIR TRADE

Although plastic waste can be seen as a trade between developed and developing countries, it is without any doubts an unfair trade.

Developing countries accept plastic waste from developed countries because this is a potential way to have an income – Poor countries see plastic waste as an opportunity for their populations. But if we explore this aspect a little further, it becomes immediately clear that for these countries the situation is only getting worse. As a matter of fact, children work as plastic waste pickers, trapped in child labour, deprived of their childhood, health and education.

During this project we have discovered a particular aspect of plastic pollution: how it is used as an exchange for money. For instance, in the Philippines there are two main dumps known as Smokey Mountains I and Smokey Mountains II.

Smokey Mountain I operated as a 2 million metric ton waste dump for more than 40 years and it was closed in 1995. The garbage tip contains so much methane, which was produced by garbage within it, that when it reaches a certain temperature it causes fires. This creates smoke that comes out of the top of the pile and it filters over the city of Manila.

In addition to this, people started working there when they were kids to earn money and to support their family needs: they collect recyclables like bottles, cans and plastic. As a consequence, the common diseases are pulmonary, such as tuberculosis and emphysema.

Similarly, Smokey Mountain II is a landfill at the edge of Manila Bay. It was established in 1998 and it covers an area of about 123. 5 acres which is the equivalent to 2000 tennis counts.

On top of that, it is home to 2000 families.

The ground to within two inches above it is covered in flies.

To make things worse children play and swim surrounded by plastic. They also make kites out of plastic bags and use straws as the main frame for the kite. As regards garbage, it is thrown by the river, but also by the local people, because there are no garbage collectors. Kids there work as scavengers: they collect plastic, then go to junk shops and exchange it for money. They earn 150 pesos a day, which is the same as 6 Euros and 75 cents, and then they give it to their family so that they can buy food.

But during our research we also came across some good news.

In India, for example, many teachers take part in the “No Child in Trash” programme of the Chintan Environmental Research and Action Group. They help children build their dreams, instead of picking through landfill trash.

We are thinking in particular of a teacher who is really a good example: Rakhi Goswami is a 24-year-old teacher who supports children from Delhi’s largest rubbish dumps.

Twenty-three learning centers have been set up, in response to a research highlighting the vulnerability of waste picker children.

While some children attend government-funded schools, many drop out, or must help collect waste on dangerous and toxic landfill sites after their school day. Some studies indicate that children who pick through waste are bullied into cleaning private homes, beaten by street sweepers or police and abused by the public – some are even sexually assaulted.

Goswami works in one of the learning centers to ensure a refuge and dedicated safe space for around 150 children from waste picker families to learn. They are taught science, mathematics, art and language lessons free of charge.

So our message today is as follows. We all know that our world is full of inequalities.

But it is also full of good examples and positive experiences.

## SEVERAL WAYS TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE LOCALLY

We are the first generation to know we’re destroying the world, and we could be the last that can do anything about it. (WWF)

The good news is that it’s often not too difficult, expensive, or inconvenient to become more environmentally friendly. As a matter of fact everybody can do many things to help our planet. We will suggest only a few easy and practical tips that we can apply in our daily life. We’ve prepared a presentation slideshow and we are going to show you some of the infinite ways to contribute on a daily basis in saving our world.

First of all, if you’re ordering takeout at home, there’s no need to get plastic forks and knives. Furthermore, try to avoid the condiments in plastic that usually come along with your order. By the way, be aware of the fact that industries produce according to consumer demands, so if we buy and therefore, ask for only unpackaged products, the company will be forced to produce only unpackaged products.

Moreover, when you go to the supermarket try to buy loose fruit and veggies or use a disposable bag from home. Generally, you should buy foods with minimal packaging  (like cereal that’s housed in just a bag, not a bag and a box) and check if the packaging was made from recycled materials.  There are loads of apps that can help you. For instance, we recommend an app called Junker. This app scans the QR code on the object (that you have to recycle) and tells you in which bin to put it out.

Another smart idea that we thought of is to possibly plan out the whole week’s meals in advance. Figure out what ingredients each recipe requires, and write them all down. In this way, there shouldn’t be much food or plastic packaging left over.

In addition, you can donate your old household items so someone else can reuse them. Don’t just throw your old stuff in the trash. Consider selling it or giving it away to someone who can use it. Donate clothes and household items that are in a good condition to charities or non-profit organizations like a school or a parish.

So, what can we do to spread this important message?

Schools could play a relevant role in this sector. In other words, just as we did here, at Liceo Alpi,  students can understand the importance of the oceans and the issues related to the use of plastic.

The demonstrations can also bring out the problem, such as Greta Thunberg did. It’s never too early to begin. In fact, Greta started to protest for the environment when she was only 15 years old.

But the easiest way nowadays is through social media. In fact, there are many sites and pages that people can provide to shed some light on these very important topics.

To sum up, our goal this morning has been to let the people understand that the oceans are very polluted and plastic is the major problem. Gen Z is surely able to bring out the problem of plastic in the oceans and to solve it through small daily actions.

Student’s message:

SO DON’T USE PLASTIC, PLEASE BE UMWELTFREUNDLICH!

Thank you